AN ASSESSMENT OF EMBEDDED POWER GENERATION IN NIGERIA

AN ASSESSMENT OF EMBEDDED POWER GENERATION IN NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

In the last decades, the power industry has had a gradual and steady change from the centralized bulk system (grid) where power is injected to the transmission network from generator to a more decentralized system where power is injected directly to a distribution network (embedded generation).  Nigeria is not left out in this trend. In this assessment study, the Siemens’ PSS/E software is used to run the Newton-Raphson load flow program to see the effect of EG on loss reduction and voltage profile improvement while comparing the results obtained with the installation of the traditional network compensators alongside their impact on network (element) loading. Furthermore, the load factor and EG level of penetration are determined via mathematical methods. This work shows that EG can reduce the Nigerian transmission network loss by 7% and a section-cut of it; the (Port Harourt) PH Mains network loss to 5.51% from 9.97%. The work further shows that EG improves the per unit (p.u.) voltage of a network especially at the buses directly connected to it as observed from buses 13(0.914 to 1.02 p.u.) and 14 (0.93t7 to 1.02 p.u.) of the transmission network considered. Similarly, EG greatly improved the overall voltage profile of the Port Harcourt Mains T/S 132/33kV with all bus voltages falling within the statutory voltage profile range (0.95 p.u. to  1.05 p.u.) except the Rumuodumaya Bus that improved from 0.8pu to 0.93pu. A comparison of the network performance with EG and with Fixed Shunt Compensation gives EG a better recommendation in the light of loss reduction, voltage profile improvement capabilities. Also more efficient consumption of power by consumers are achieved with the EG in operation as seen in the Load Factor studies. At a penetration of 14.76%, the EG has a positive effect on the overall network performance which has to be monitored as the level of penetration increases, so as to mitigate the impact on the technical losses of the network.