COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE PERFORMANCES OF FORMAL AND INFORMAL SECTORS IN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UYO, AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA
The aim of the study was to empirically compare the performances of formal and informal sectors solid waste management system in Uyo, with a view to identifying whether variation exists in their performance. The specific objectives of the study were to: (i) identify and classify the activities of formal and informal sectors solid waste management in Uyo, (ii) determine the level of performance of the formal and informal sectors and variation (if any) in solid waste management in Uyo, (iii) determine residents’ perception of the level of performance of formal and informal sectors in solid waste management in Uyo. The study adopted the survey research design method. Data were collected from both secondary and primary sources. Secondary data sources include books, journals, gazettes, as well as statistics on the volume of waste collected from Akwa Ibom Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency. The primary data were collected with the aid of structured questionnaire which contained three major sections and 21 questions. The questions were structured in 5-point Likert scale using strongly agree, agree, moderately agree, disagree and strongly disagree. A pilot survey was carried out to test the clarity of the questions on the questionnaire. Reliability of the test instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha which yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.85. The sample size of 400 respondents was determined from a sample population of 407,648 resident population of Uyo (NPC 2006) using Taro Yamane formula. The stratified and purposive sampling techniques were employed to select the respondents based on the existing three residential densities (low, medium and high). Stratified sampling technique was used to select the household heads, whereas purposive sampling method was employed in selecting the Akwa Ibom Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency staff (formal sector) and scavengers waste operators (informal sector) that were sampled. Three hundred and eighty-eight copies of questionnaire representing (97%) were returned and utilized. The household heads, Akwa Ibom Environmental Protection and Waste Management Agency staff (formal sectors) and informal sector actors (scavengers) formed the respondents for the studry. The Principal Component Analysis, Analysis of variance and Chi-Square were used to analyze the data at a significance level of 0.05. The activities of formal sector in solid waste management in Uyo were: solid waste disposal (36.4%), revenue generation (24.6%), waste recycling services (12.5%) and providing adequate sanitary services (12.5%). The activities of the informal sector in solid waste management in Uyo were: waste disposal (28.2%), resource recovery (23.9%), providing an aesthetic environment (16.8%), flood control (15.1%) and citizen empowerment (13.5%). The performances of formal sector in solid waste management in Uyo were: adequate service delivery (11.4%), providing good sanitary condition (10.8%), promotion of awareness on efficient solid waste management (9.8%), monitoring solid waste management system (9.5%), conservation of resources (9.2%), and funding the evacuation of solid waste (8.5%). They cumulatively accounted for 59% variation in the performance of the formal sector in the management of solid waste in Uyo. This implies that formal sector operated at 59% performance level. The performance of informal sector in solid waste management in Uyo were: collection and disposal of solid waste (13.7%), wealth creation (11.3%), citizen mobilization (9.1%), sensitization on refuse disposal (8.8%), and cost effectiveness of the informal sector (8.3%), acceptability of the informal sector (7.8%), income generation (7.4%) and resource recovery (6.7%). They cumulatively accounted for 73% variation in the performances of the informal sector in the management of solid waste in Uyo. This implies that the informal sector operated on 73% performance level. There was significant variation (p < 0.05) in the performances of formal and informal sectors in solid waste management in Uyo. This indicates that informal sector performed more effectively than the formal sector in solid waste management in Uyo Capital City. The resident’s perception on the level of performances of the formal and informal sectors in solid waste management in Uyo did not differ significantly among the various sectors in Uyo (X2 = 33.137; p > 0.05). The study also recommended that government should actively pursue formal and informal sector synergy.