COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA AND VERNONIA AMYGDALINA LEAVES ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL INDICES IN ALBINO RATS
A comparative study of the effects of aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera and Vernonia amygdalina on selected biochemical indices of prostate pathologies of male albino rats was investigated using thirty two adult male albino rats of average weight of 152g. Rats were randomly assigned into four groups of eight rats each with different recognizable codes. Group one served as the control and each rat in this group received orally 2ml of distill water daily. Groups two and three received oral administrations of 2ml aqueous extract containing 5g of M. oleifera, V. amygdalina respectively daily. Group four received 4ml containing 2.5g of M. oleifera with 2.5g of V. amygdalina per body weight orally daily. Administration of the extract was done for 28 days. The rats were fed on growers match and tap water ad libitum throughout the experiment. The animals were housed in standard animal cages in the animal house of the Department of Biochemistry, Kogi State University, Anyigba under 12 hour light/ dark cycle for 29 days. Changes in weight were noted at the end of every week for the four weeks. The animals were starved over-night and blood drawn from cut at the tip of the tails was used for fasting blood glucose test. All the animals were killed on the 29th day by jugular puncture; part of their blood was collected into plain bottle and spun to obtain serum, and part into EDTA bottle for biochemical analyses. A non significant weight increase was observed till the third week of administration of the extract followed by a decrease in weight in the fourth week. The group administered a combination of the extracts of M. oleifera with V. amygdalina showed a significant decrease (P<0.05) when compared to the control. A significant reduction (p<0.01) in the fasting blood glucose (FBS) was recorded in the group administered M. oleifera alone and the combination of M. oleifera with V. amygdalina when compared to the control value. An increase in the Packed Cell Volume was recorded in all the groups but were not significant (P>0.05). A significant increase in the total protein was recorded for the group administered V. amygdalina and the combination rof M. oleifera with V. amygdalina. A significant increase (p<0.05) and (p<0.01) in the serum globulin concentration was observed in the group administered only V. amygdalina and the group administered the combination respectively. M. oleifera increased serum albumin compared to the V. amygdalina and the combination, but decreased the serum bilirubin concentration relative to V. amygdalina and the combination. A significant increase (p<0.001) and (p<0.05) in the urea level was observed in the group administered the combination of M. oleifera and V. amygdalina and the group administered only M. oleifera respectively when compared to the control value. For serum electrolyte, there was an equivalent increase in serum potassium ion in all the groups but not significant (P>0.05) when compared to the control value. Both plant leaf extracts reduced the serum chloride ion but the combination did it better. M. oleifera recorded a significant reduction in serum sodium ion compared to V. amygdalina and the combination but their differences was not significant (P>0.05). For serum lipid profile, V. amygdalina has a significant reduction (p<0.05) potential over M. oleifera for total cholesterol. V. amygdalina and the combination increased HDL compared to M. oleifera but not significant (P>0.05). LDL decreased significantly (P<0.05) in the combined extract relative to the single. Significant decreases (p<0.001) in Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP) and Total Acid Phosphatase (TAP) activities were recorded in the entire intervention group when compared to the control value. However, the two plants showed a reduction potential in metabolic factors associated with prostate disorders and their markers, PAP and TAP.