COMPARISM OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF MEMBERS OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE ISOLATED FROM WILDLIFE AND HUMAN SOURCES

COMPARISM OF ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF MEMBERS OF ENTEROBACTERIACEAE ISOLATED FROM WILDLIFE AND HUMAN SOURCES

ABSTRACT

Human sources ( Human not  on antibiotics HN, Human on antibiotics, HA) as well as wild life (WL) isolates of Enteric organisms were examined for resistance to some antibacterial agents. The isolates include Escherichia coli , Klebsiella spp, Citrobacter spp, Enterococcus spp, and Proteus spp.From  HN, 48 E.coli isolates (63.15%), 13 isolates of Citrobacter (17.10%), 9 isolates of Klebsiella (11.84%) and 6 isolates of Enteroccocus (7.89%) were tested. From  HA, 45 isolates of  E.coli (57.69%), 16  isolates of Citrobacter (20.51%), 5 isolates of Klebsiella (6.41%), 9 isolate of Enteroccocus (11.53%) and 3 isolates of Proteus (3.84%) were evaluated for resistance to antimicrobial agents.Generally, isolates from HA were more resistant to ampicillin (50%) and  augmentin (32.15%) than  clarithomycin (5.17%). Similarly HN isolates were  more resistant to ampicillin (29.54%), augmentin (18.73%) and cetriaxone (17.32%) than nitrofuratoin (14.87%).  Bacteria isolated from wild life were species of Enteroccocus , Klebsiella , Proteus  and Citrobacter  with the total number of isolates ranging from 31 isolates of Citrobacter (43.05%),13 isolates of Proteus (18.05%), 11 isolates of  both Klebsiella, Enteroccocus (15.27%) to 6 isolates of E.coli (8.33%).  As was the case with human isolates, those from wild life were also  resistanrt to Ampicillin, Clarithromycin  and Augumentin. The least resistance was demonstrated against Pefloxacin, Ceftriaxone and Ciprofloxacin. Some of the Entrobacteriaceae  isolated from  human and animal sources , (resistant and susceptible) were subjected to plasmid DNA profiling using agarose gel electrophoresis, and the presence of plasmids which molecular weights clustered around 21.3kb for E.coli , klebsiella ,Citrobacter, Enterococcus and Proteus were observed from human and wild life sources (that presumably had no contact  with antibiotics). Plasmids of similar molecular weights were involved in their resistance. These results point to an additional direction on the issue of drug resistance  as organisms isolated from sources apparently not exposed to antibiotics demonstrated glaring multidrug resistance as those from antibiotic contamination prone sources. Antibiotic resistance from sources mentioned showed that these sources can be considered high risk sources of drug resistant organisms.