EFFECT OF DIFFERENT DIETARY LEVELS OF PALM OIL SLUDGE ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF LOCAL TURKEYS.
A 56 day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of different dietary levels of palm oil sludge on the growth performance, carcass trait, and economic cost of feeding local turkeys. Forty local poults (mixed sexes) were randomly assigned to five treatment groups with eight poults per treatment. Each treatment was replicated twice with four poults per replicate in a completely randomized design. The poults were fed commercial broiler starter ration containing 24% crude protein and 2800kcal/kgME for the first 6 weeks. Thereafter, five experimental diets containing varying levels of palm oil sludge were formulated and fed until the turkeys attained the age of 14 weeks. The experimental diets were designated T1,T2, T3, T4 and T5 with T1 containing 0% inclusion of palm oil sludge serving as control, while T2, T3, T4 and T5 had 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels of inclusion of palm oil sludge, respectively. The body weights of the turkeys were taken weekly for 8 weeks while the feed intake of the turkeys was recorded daily. The feed conversion ratio and daily weight gain of the turkeys were computed. At the age of 14 weeks, four birds per treatment were randomly selected, weighed and sacrificed for carcass and organ evaluation. Weights of eviscerated carcass, breast, thigh, drumstick, back, wing, head, shank, back, neck, liver, heart, gizzard, spleen, abdominal and visceral fat were recorded. The results showed that the final live weight, total weight gain, total feed intake and feed conversion ratio were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by the diets. Turkeys on Treatment 2 (5% palm oil sludge inclusion) had significantly (p<0.05) the highest mean final live weight value of 2530g, total weight gain value of 2240g, average daily weight gain value of 40g/bird/day, average feed intake value of 98.93g/bird/day, feed conversion ratio of 2.47 when compared with turkeys on other diets. Turkeys on Treatment 5 (20% palm oil sludge inclusion) were significantly (P< 0.05) lighter than those of other treatments. The final live weight of birds on treatments 1,3,4 and 5 were 2010g, 1950g, 2050g and 1750g, respectively. The total weight gain on treatments 1,3,4 and 5 were 1730g, 1670g, 1770g, 1460g, respectively. The total feed intake of birds on treatments 1,3,4 and 5 were 4610g, pr4560g, 4770g and 4410g, respectively. Feed conversion ratio values of 2.66, 2.72, 2.69 and 2.69 were recorded for birds on treatments 1,3,4 and 5, respectively. The cost of production showed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among treatments in the cost of feed (N/Kg), total feed intake (Kg/bird), total feed cost (N/kg) and cost of feed/kg weight gain. Cost of production of birds in Treatment 1 (0% palm oil sludge inclusion) was significantly (p<0.05) higher with (N640.80) which was required to reach the final live weight and decreased with increasing level of palm oil sludge inclusion. Treatment 5 (20% palm oil sludge inclusion) required the least amount (N450.80) to reach the final live weight. Absolute values for fasted live weight, dress weight, thigh, drum stick, breast and back were significantly (p<0.05) higher for turkeys on Treatment 2 (5% palm oil sludge inclusion) with values of 2750g, 2150g, 570g, 487g, and 437.7g, respectively. Significant values (P<0.05) were recorded for turkeys on Treatment 5 (20% palm oil sludge inclusion) with values of 2200g, 1650g, 437.50g, 299.40g, 392.70g, respectively. It was therefore concluded that even though palm oil sludge could be included in the diet of turkeys up to 20% level, local turkeys appeared to perform best at the inclusion level of 5% palm oil sludge.