EFFECT OF NEED-FOCUSED COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING INTERVENTION PROGRAMME ON THE SELF-ESTEEM AND SELF-EFFICACY OF RECIDIVIST INMATES IN THE PRISONS IN NIGERIA
This study investigated the effect of Need-Focused Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Programme (NEFCRIP) on the self-esteem and self-efficacy of recidivist inmates in the zone G of the Nigeria prison service. The design of the study was a post-test only control group design. There were six research questions and six corresponding hypotheses raised to guide the study. The sample of the study was 74 recidivist inmates purposively selected from six prisons out of the 11 medium prisons in zone G with a total population of 105 recidivists. The participants were assigned to experimental and control groups. Inmates in the experimental group received Need-Focused Cognitive Restructuring Intervention Programme (NEFCRIP). The programme emphasized positive thinking and positive values, cognitive restructuring, coping skills and positive self-talk as strategies for building self-esteem and self-efficacy. The control group received a placebo-conventional counselling. Inmate’s Self-esteem (ISES) and Self-efficacy (ISEFS) scales were the instruments used for data collection. Data were analyzed using means and standard deviations while ANOVA was used to test the hypotheses at .05 probability level. Results showed that, NEFCRIP had significant effect on the self-esteem and self-efficacy of recidivist inmates in Nigeria prisons. The interaction between NEFCRIP and gender on self-esteem and self-efficacy of recidivist was not significant. It was concluded among others that Need-focused cognitive restructuring intervention programme (NEFCRIP) significantly is an effective cognitive based intervention programme that can be used to treat low self-esteem and low self-efficacy prevalent among recidivist inmates. Based on the findings, it was recommended that psychological services/counselling that is cognitive based should be set up as a regular programme in the Nigeria prisons. Workshops and seminars should be organized by the Ministry of Interior for the training of welfare officers some of whom are not trained psychologists or counsellors on how to use NEFCRIP in the prisons to improve the low self-esteem and self-efficacy of recidivist inmates. Need-focused cognitive restructuring intervention programme should form part of the counselling programmes for the inmates in Nigeria prison.