EFFECT OF OKARA AND DETARIUM MICROCARPUM INCORPORATION ON THE QUALITY OF ‘TALIA’ PRODUCED FROM WHEAT AND SORGHUM FLOUR BLENDS
The effect of Okara and Detarium microcarpum seed flours on the quality of talia noddles produced from wheat and sorghum flour composites was investigated. Composites of wheat semolina/sorghum flour blended in ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 were prepared and evaluated for water absorption capacity, soluble solids and swelling capacity. Cold extruded talia produced from each flour composites dough was evaluated for cooking time, cooking losses and total organic matter. The 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 wheat semolina/sorghum flour composites were selected and blended with different levels (0-20) % of Okara and Detarium microcarpum flours, evaluated for physico-chemical properties and talia produced from the flour blends were evaluated for cooking test and sensory qualities. Four best talia products were selected, stored for six months (30 ± 2oC, 85±5% RH) and evaluated for pH, moisture content, TBA number and mould count. Presence of sorghum in the composite flour increased the water absorption capacity from 7.33% to 12.33%, decreased swelling capacity from 52.0% to 45.4%, while talia made from the composites showed increased cooking loss (0.14% to 0.82%), total organic matter (1.26 to 2.84) and reduced radial expansion (3.0 to 2.0) relative to the control. Sorghum addition at 30% level was acceptable for talia production based on low water absorption capacity and high swelling capacity. Okara addition increased the protein content (from 10.21% to 13.63%) of the composites and talia. Blends with 10% okara showed low water absorption capacity (12.75%), low cooking losses (0.73%) and high scores in all the sensory attributes except in appearance but differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the control (100% wheat). Detarium microcarpum addition increased the crude fibre (from 1.69% to 3.76%) content of the talia. There was no significant (p > 0.05) difference among samples at 5% levels of Deterium microcaprum incorporation relative to the control in all the sensory attributes except in appearance. Low water absorption capacity, cooking loss, and optimal total organic matter (2.01) were observed in the samples at 5% level of Detarium microcarpum incorporation. Okara and Detarium microcarpum addition into talia increased the total dietary fibre contents (from 8.61±0.02% to 9.97±0.01%). The total dietary fibre and mineral contents of samples differed significantly (p < 0.05) with the control. Moisture contents and TBA number did not differ (p>0.05) among stored samples but pH and mould count differed (p < 0.05) relative to the control. Low values of TBA (0.6 to 3.17 mg malonaldehyde/kg sample), mould count (0 to 1.4 x 102 cfu/100g) and moisture contents (10.5% to 14.5%) were recorded during storage.