EFFECT OF THE METHANOL EXTRACT OF JATROPHA TANJORENSIS LEAVES ON SOME HAEMATOLOGICAL AND ANTIOXIDANT PARAMETERS IN RATS
The effect of the methanol extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves on haematological and antioxidant parameters of rats was investigated. From the study, the percentage yield of the extract was 9.77%. The qualitative and quantitative phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of active principles such as tannins (69.91±7.53 mg/100 g), flavonoids (3116.15±143.24 mg/100 g), total phenolics (12.98±1.02 mgGAE), steroids (26.17±0.09 mg/100g), terpenoids (208.80±48.31 mg/100 g), alkaloids (1677.78±41.95 mg/100 g), and carbohydrate (1345.29±2.26 mg/100 g). The extract showed no visible signs of toxicity even at a dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-eight days repeated dose toxicity was carried out using twenty-four rats divided into four groups of six rats each. The animals in group 1 served as control and received distilled water while groups 2, 3 and 4 received 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract respectively. The results obtained showed that the extract significantly (p < 0.05) increased the mean red blood cell count, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration of the animals treated with 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract when compared to the values obtained for the control group. The result also revealed a reduction in the mean white blood cell count in all the treated groups when compared to the values obtained for the control. However, this reduction was significant (p < 0.05) in the animals that received 400 mg/kg body weight of the extract. There was also an increase in platelet count of the treated groups when compared to the value obtained for the control. However, the increase was significant (p < 0.05) in the animals treated with 400 mg/kg of the extract compared with the control. The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in all the treated groups when compared to thpre value obtained for the control. Results from some of the antioxidant enzymes studied revealed that the extract increased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities of the treated groups when compared to the controls. However, treatment with 200 mg/kg body weight of the extract caused a significant (p < 0.05) increase in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity when compared to control while the increase was non- significant (p > 0.05) in the other treated groups compared to control. The result showed that apart from the WBC and platelet counts, the highest activity of the extract was obtained at the dose of 200 mg/kg body weight after which a decline was observed at a higher dose. The results obtained from this study might indicate that the methanol extract of Jatropha tanjorensis leaves contained phytochemicals which are capable of improving the haematological and antioxidant properties of rats.
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