EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS IN NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This work was aimed at finding the effects of alcohol on some biochemical parameters. A total of one hundred and eighty (180) apparently healthy, non-hypertensive male alcoholics were used for the study. Forty (40) non-consumers of alcohol were used as control. The activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in the control was 10.50±2.00 IU/L while it was 16.50±1.50 IU/L; 17.50±2.00 IU/L and 18.31±2.00 IU/L in alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. Also, the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in the control was 9.51±0.35 IU/L while it was 18.44±0.40 IU/L, 19.21±0.19 IU/L, 20.32±0.64 IU/L in alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. The ALT and AST activities of alcoholic subjects who showed preference for distilled spirit was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those who showed preference for palmwine and beer. The activities of alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine was the lowest. Furthermore, the serum total bilirubin concentration of the alcoholics was significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The serum total bilirubin concentrations were 18.65±2.10 μmol/l, 19.40±1.50 μmol/l and 22.75±1.60 μmol/l for alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. The serum total bilirubin of the control was 8.30 ± 2.00 μmol/l. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the alcoholic subjects was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control. The ALP activity of the control was 61.50 ± 30.00 IU/L rwhile the ALP activity was 174.20±2.50 IU/L, 175.10±1.50 IU/L and 177.40±1.00 IU/L in the three categories of alcoholics who showed preference for palmwine, beer and distilled spirit respectively. Moreover, the urine total protein concentration of the alcoholics was significantly higher (p<0.05) compared with the control. Alcoholics who showed preference for distilled spirit had urine total protein of 153.96±0.43 mg/dl followed by alcoholics who showed preference for beer and palmwine who had urine total protein of 152.74±0.42 mg/dl and 151.34±0.60 mg/dl respectively. The urine total protein of the control was 56.40±0.40 mg/dl. Furthermore, the urine specific gravity, serum urea and creatinine of the alcoholics were significantly higher (p < 0.05) compared with the control. However, the plasma sodium, potassium and creatinine clearance of the alcoholics were significantly lower (p < 0.05) compared with the control. The body mass index (BMI) of the three groups of alcoholics fell within the range of 18.50 to 24.90. The blood pressure of both the alcoholic and control subjects were normal (below 140/90 mmHg). This work therefore shows that chronic alcohol use could induce both hepatic and renal dysfunctions in the alcoholics which manifested in form of adverse variations in some biochemical parameters of prognostic and diagnostic utility.