ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS OF SEWAGE DISPOSAL METHODS IN ENUGU METROPOLIS, SOUTH-EASTERN NIGERIA
A questionnaire and observational study were randomly conducted on 204 houses to acquire information on different sewage disposal methods used in Enugu metropolis, and to investigate the impact of the sewage disposal methods on available water supplies. The results obtained show that 51% of the resident’s wells are located at a distance less than 9m from the toilets. Samples from 21 different locations in the area were analyzed and studied in order to assess the quality of the groundwater. The result of the physico-chemical analysis shows presence of some sewage sensitive parameters such as Chlorides (CL-), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Electrical Conductivity (EC), and Nitrates (No3-), although not gin significant quantity. The bacteriological analysis of the samples reveals that the aquifer/groundwater has very high concentrations of coliform bacteria varying between 130 and 2400MPN/100ml of water. Further bacteriological investigation of the groundwater quality shows significant concentrations of Escherichia coli which is an indication of faecal contamination of the groundwater. Simple hydrogeological studies of the area such as ascertaining depth to groundwater table and direction of groundwater flow prior to siting of wells and toilets would minimize groundwater contamination. Relevant agencies should make continuous effort to control, regulate and educate the populace on indiscriminate disposal of sewage within the study area.