FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH INCOMPLETE IMMUNISATION OF CHILDREN AGED 9-23 MONTHS IN RURAL AREAS OF ODEDA LOCAL GOVERNMENT, ODEDA AREA OF OGUN STATE, NIGERIA
Immunization remains one of the most successful and cost-effective public health interventions worldwide and it is an essential instrument to improving childhood health thereby reducing childhood mortality while also improving maternal health. The study examined the factors associated with incomplete immunization of children aged 9-23 months in rural areas of Odeda Local Government, Area of Ogun State, Nigeria.
The study employed a cross-sectional survey to generate quantitative data, and Focus Group Discussion for qualitative data. Primary data were collected through a self-structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussion. A total of 422 mothers with children of aged between 12-23 months were used for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.
Results showed that the mean age of the respondents was 32 years, most of the respondent’s source information about immunization from community health worker 93.8%, health facility 75.8%, and media 64.7% and 39.8% from church. Almost all (99.5%) of the caregivers reveals that immunization for babies begins at birth. Most (86.3%) of the caregivers reveals that swelling on the site is one of the possible side effects of immunization above half (52.1%) reveals fever is one of the possible side effects of immunization. Correlation analysis reveals that there is positive significant relationship between income (r = 0.265, p < 0.05) and the attitude of caregiver towards immunization. Seasonal festivals (mean 2.61), Bad roads leading to health centers (mean 2.24), Health workers do not have vaccine to give on immunization days (mean 2.38) are some of the challenges faced by the rural mothers. Chi square result showed that there is a significant relationship between marital status (x = 73.300, p < 0.05), sex (x = 41.239, p < 0.05), religion (x = 34.330, p < 0.05), ethnicity (x = 33.694, p < 0.05), relationship of the caregiver to the child (x = 23.152, p < 0.05), educational level (x = 110.562, p < 0.05), employment status of the caregiver (x = 19.629, p < 0.05), primary occupation (x = 64.916, p < 0.05), secondary occupation (x = 20.475, p < 0.05) and the attitude of caregiver towards immunization. From the qualitative study, the migration of mothers from one place to another, children in communities with no health facilities, bad roads, seasonal activities falling on immunization days, long waiting time in the clinics, non-availability of vaccines, lower household incomes are contributory factors to incomplete immunization. The health workers reported that low turnout of mothers on immunization days and incessant industrial actions embarked on by health workers inhibit mothers from completing children’s immunizations.
The study concluded that the major barriers that lead to incomplete immunization in the study area include Seasonal festivals, market days falling on appointment days, bad roads leading to health centers, low income and knowledge deficit on immunization. It is therefore recommended that Government should encourage the services of non-governmental organizations and funding agencies by providing an enabling environment to facilitate grassroots child health services.
Keywords: Factors, children, immunization, incomplete, rural area