IMPACT OF ABATTOIR EFFLUENT ON THE QUALITY OF ASATA AND OWO STREAMS IN ENUGU, SOUTH EASTERN NIGERIA
Abattoir activities are accompanied by some negative influence on the environment if not properly managed. The impact of abattoir effluent on the quality of Asata and Owo (a tributary to Asata) streams in Enugu was studied. Field observation revealed that the inhabitants of the study area make use of the stream water. Two sets of questionnaire were administered. Hundred copies of one set of questionnaire was administered to the people downstream to obtain information on the various uses they put the stream water to while a copy was administered to the medical personnel at the only hospital in the study area to obtain information on the occurrence of water related diseases. Both the raw abattoir effluent and water samples from upstream and downstream of effluent discharge points of the streams collected in January (dry season) and July (rainy season), 2015 were tested for Temperature, Turbidity, Electrical conductivity, pH, TDS, TSS, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Iron, Sodium, BOD, COD, DO, E.coli and Total coliform. The result of abattoir effluent analysis revealed its pollution potential as it had TDS, Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate and BOD higher than that of the FMENV maximum limit for effluent discharge into surface water. Water samples were collected from six different points. The analysis was done in rainy (July) and dry (January) seasons of 2015 so as to reflect seasonal changes in water quality. The t-test result between upstream and downstream points of the abattoirs showed no significant difference (p>0.05), but the highest concentrations of turbidity, Electrical Conductivity, TDS, Phosphate, Nitrate, BOD, COD, DO, E.coli and Total coliform were obtained at the points of effluent discharge into Asata and Owo streams. Meanwhile, Nitrate, COD and E.coli (Asata stream) and TDS, Nitrate, COD, E.coli and Total coliform (Owo stream) individually contributed to more than 50% to the pollution load of the two streams during the rainy season while in dry season Turbidity, Nitrate and COD (Asata stream) and TDS, Chloride, Phosphate and COD (Owo stream) had more than 50% to the pollution load of the two streams. The student‘t’ test result showed significant difference (p<0.05) in TDS, TSS, Iron, E.coli and Total coliform between rainy and dry seasons. Abattoir effluent contributed to the pollution of Asata and Owo streams which are important in solving some of the problems of domestic water supply as the stream water augments the available water for the inhabitants of the study area. It was therefore recommended that the New Artisan abattoir should be upgraded to reduce its level of surface water pollution.