LEADERSHIP STYLE, EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE, EMPOWERMENT AND TURNOVER INTENTIONS OF LIBRARIANS IN PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN SOUTH-WEST AND SOUTH-SOUTH, NIGERIA
Digital revolution has brought about employee mobility resulting in increased turnover intentions which is now regarded as a global challenge; and universities are not excluded. Employees seemed dissatisfied with their job; and many stayed due to non availability of alternatives. Dissatisfaction leads to turnover intentions which have become a topical issue and provides an estimation of employees’ self-assessments on whether they might quit in the near future. Understanding the reasons why employees quit might be a precursor to high turnover intentions. Turnover intentions of librarians have become a human resource problem in private universities because of their inability to retain librarians they nurtured due to ready availability of job alternatives. This study investigated the influence of Leadership Style (LS), Emotional Intelligence (EI) and Empowerment of Librarians (EL) on Turnover Intentions (TI) in the private universities in South-West and South-South, Nigeria.
The survey research design was adopted. A total of 200 librarians from selected private universities in South-West and South-South, Nigeria constituted the target population for the study. Purposive sampling technique was used to select twenty-seven out of the thirty-eight private universities in South-West and South-South, Nigeria. Total enumeration was used. The instrument for data collection was a modified and validated questionnaire. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficients for the variables ranged between 0.69 and 0.97. A response rate of 85% was recorded for the 200 copies of the questionnaire administered. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential (Pearson Product Moment Correlation and multiple regression) statistics.
The findings indicated that there was a significant correlation between LS (r=0.40, p<0.05); EI (r=0.24,p<0.05); EL (r=0.18, P<0.05) and TI. LS had a significant influence on TI;(Adj. R2=0.292;F(3,166)= 23.974;P<0.05). EI had a significant influence on TI(Adj.R2= 0.106;F(3,166)=7.586;P<0.05). EL also had a significant influence on TI(Adj.R2=0.041; F(2,167)=4.525; p<0.05). LS, EI and EL had a combined influence on TI (Adj.R2= 0.149; (F(8,161)=10.764;P<0.05).
The study concluded that the appropriateness of leadership style and leadership behaviour remain the secret tool in understanding employees’ behaviour, attitude and retention. The engagement and retention of Librarians is highly dependent on leaders with a critical mass of emotional intelligence and empowering behaviours. It was therefore recommended that continuous leadership trainings with emphasis on emotional intelligence and empowering behaviour should be conducted in conjunction with relevant stakeholders. Curriculum in library schools should integrate emotional intelligence skills while exit surveys should be conducted for quitting librarians to identify reasons for leaving.
Keywords: Leadership style, Emotional intelligence, Empowerment, Librarians, Turnover intentions, Private universities