MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE PROFILE AND METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCTION IN Pseudomonas aeruginosa ISOLATED FROM THE NASAL CAVITY OF CATTLE FROM KARA MARKET OGUN STATE NIGERIA
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an ubiquitous, Gram-negative, rod-shaped, monoflagellated bacterium, capable of causing serious infections in immunocompromised host. It is one of the most difficult multidrug resistant microorganisms capable of producing metallo-β-lactamase (MBL). Though a notorious organism, its identification should not be limited to pigment production alone, as some strains do not produce pigments. This study was aimed at evaluating the increasing prevalence of multidrug resistance profile and MBL production in P. aeruginosa isolated from nasal cavity of cattle from Kara market, Ogun state, Nigeria.
In this study, a total of 570 samples were randomly collected from the nasal cavity of healthy male and female cattle using sterile swab sticks. They were tested for the presence of P. aeruginosa on cetrimide agar, observing the agar plates for growth and pigmentation. Further biochemical test and molecular analysis were carried out to further confirm their identity as P. aeruginosa. The antibiogram was determined using ceftazidime, cefroxime, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, augumentin, nitrofurantouin, ampicillin, imipenem and meropenem discs. Carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem) discs combined with EDTA were used to test for the production of MBL in P. aeruginosa.
A total of 439 samples were found to be positive for Pseudomonas out of the 570 samples collected. Of these positive samples, 229 isolates were from female cattle (31.0% showing pigment production and 68.9% non-pigment producers) and 210 isolates were from the male cattle (48.57% showing pigment production and 51.43% non-pigment producers). Isolates obtained from the female cattle showed 69.01% (pigment producers) and 82.28% (non-pigment producers) multidrug resistance while 75.49% (pigment producers) and 84.26% (non-pigment producers) were multidrug resistant among the isolates from the male cattle. In determining MBLs production, 47.84% were positive for MBL production using the IMP+EDTA and 75.50% were positive for MBL using the MER+EDTA.
From this study, it was concluded that multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa is present in the nasal cavity of cattle and its presence could be detrimental to the cattle, cattle herders, beef handlers and consumers. The level of resistance was high in both pigment and non-pigment producing isolates, though the resistance of non-pigment producing P. aeruginosa was higher. Drugs of choice to be considered first for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug resistant P. aeruginosa are gentamicin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and meropenem. Nitrofurantoin is expensive and not easily purchased hence they are to be considered as the last drug of choice at extreme cases.
Keywords:Pseudomonas.aeruginosa, Carbapenem, resistance, Metallo-beta-lactamase, Cattle.