PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAKFAST CEREALS FROM BLENDS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA), MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) AND DEFATTED COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA).

PRODUCTION AND EVALUATION OF BREAKFAST CEREALS FROM BLENDS OF AFRICAN YAM BEAN (SPHENOSTYLIS STENOCARPA), MAIZE (ZEA MAYS) AND DEFATTED COCONUT (COCOS NUCIFERA).

ABSTRACT

Six samples were generated by mixing the flours (AYB+ maize composite) with graded levels of defatted coconut flour (100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50), sugar, salt, sorghum malt extract and water. Breakfast cereals were produced by roasting (280°C) -a dry heat treatment process to gelatinize and semi-dextrinize the starch in order to generate dry ready to eat  products from blends of African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa), maize (Zea mays) and defatted coconut (Cocos nucifera) cake. They were subjected to proximate, functional, sensory, minerals, vitamins, anti-nutrients, amino acids and microbial analyses. The products obtained were also served dry (without added water), with cold water, cold milk and warm milk to 15 panelists along with Weetabix (commercial control) to evaluate for appearance, consistency, flavour, taste, aftertaste, mouth feel, and overall acceptability using a 9 point Hedonic scale (1=dislike extremely, 9=like extremely).  The results revealed the following ranges: proximate parameters (%): moisture (3.38-4.20), protein (15.68-18.26), fat (1.84-2.02), crude fiber (6.70-9.08), ash (5.29-7.36), carbohydrates (60.96-64.53), and energy (327.54-347.72Kcal).  Functional properties were: pH (4.70- 6.56), bulk density (0.29- 0.71g/ml), water absorption capacity (68.31- 76.39%), oil absorption capacity (0.87- 1.32%), foam capacity (2.48- 3.49%), viscosity (19.73-31.08%), invitro-protein digestibility (66.30- 82.2%), and gelation capacity (75.32- 89.66%). Mineral analysis showed the following ranges (mg/100g): calcium (169-213), magnesium (290-430), potassium (88-191), manganese (5.92-7.99), iron (9.81-14.1), copper (0.58- 0.86), sodium (7.62- 9.97), zinc (2.11- 3.35). Vitamins analysis also revealed the following ranges (mg/100g): B1 (0.09-0.31), B2, (0.32-0.43), B6 (0.13- 0.26), B12 (0.74-1.01) and C (1.70- 2.65). Results for the anti-nutrients showed the following ranges (mg/100g): phytates, (0.38-1.25), oxalate (0.076-0.302), hemagluttinins, (0.10- 0.29) and tannins (0.00064-0.0016). Amino acids detected ranged as follows (mg/100g): phenylalanine r(190-320), valine (160-240), threonine (560-810), tryptophan (380-520), isoleucine (110-220), methionine (10-100), histidine (160-240), arginine (180-510), lysine(90-250), leucine (590-810), cysteine (210-340), alanine (110-220), glycine (460-750), serine(80-120), aspartic acid (10-40), glutamic acid (10-40), asparagine (190-520), glutamine (100-300) and proline (30-50). Microbial analysis revealed the following ranges: bacteria count, 0.5×10 -1.51×102 Cfu/g, mold count, 0.0×10- 0.6×10 Cfu/g, while coliform was not detected. The sensory results revealed that the samples obtained were acceptable to the panelists, and there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the control (Weetabix) and the samples in terms of overall acceptability when served with cold water, while significant (p<0.05) differences existed when served dry, with cold milk and hot milk.